Tuberculosis Can Be Prevented
Health Tips – Tuberculosis sufferers continues to increase, about 500,000 people per year. This increase occurred with the increase in people living with HIV / AIDS who are vulnerable to attackers of this lung-more than half of people with HIV / AIDS-infected with tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis caused by bacteria and transmitted through the air (airborne disease). The bacteria usually attack the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body through the circulatory system, respiratory tract system, and lymph channels.
Tuberculosis sufferers if left untreated after 5 years 50 percent will die and 30 percent will cure themselves with a high body resistance, and 20 percent become “chronic cases” which remain infectious.
The symptoms of patients with tuberculosis, especially cough for 2-3 weeks and does not heal, a cold sweat at night, lethargy and reduced appetite so they lose weight. To test whether someone is infected with tuberculosis bacteria can be done by sputum examination twice (according to the International Standard for Tuberculosis Care / ISTC), namely sputum taken at the time when coming to the place of service and sputum collected the next morning.
Sputum examination can be performed in the clinic or hospital or other Health Laboratory. If the tuberculosis bacteria or commonly known as acid resistant bacteria in sputum is found, this indicates that the person is infected with tuberculosis bacteria.
World Health Organization (WHO) states, tuberculosis disease can be prevented and treated. WHO is struggling through the STOP TB Strategy and supported by the global planning of reducing morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis. In the year 2008 estimated there are 9.6 million-13, 3 million new cases and old ones. WHO report, 87 percent of successful recovery, the target of 85 per cent.
Tuberculosis prevention efforts are the main factors (priority). If we know how it is transmitted, it will be easier to handle prevention.
Some of those clues:
– Sufferers is asked to not spread the disease by closing mouth with a handkerchief or sleeve when coughing and sneezing, or using a mask. Need a standard respirator so that no bacteria inhaled.
– Provide good ventilation (cross Ventilation), so that particles from coughing or sneezing can be quickly diluted in the air so that the bacterial content is smaller.
– Prevention efforts are very important applied especially in hospitals, health centers, where crowds gather, such as in barracks, prison, and schools. A good air exchange speed in a room, according to WHO, at least 12 ACH (average change hour), air exchange occurs an average of 12 times per hour in the room.
For hospitals, health centers, and others, WHO recommends the separation of patients with coughs, from the moment the patient comes to the registration booth. Cough sufferers should be given masks to avoid coughing and sneezing bacteria spreads. Patients with symptoms of cough should be given priority service.
When speed and air volume is less, mechanical effort can be used, using a table or standing fan (stand fan) with the right direction, or exhaust fan. This is important in bed room, treatment rooms, laboratories, and others. Special patient examination room in the hospital, other than wind speed 12 ACH.
To measure the air exchange, vaneometer is used , a very simple tool, a hollow box in which thin sheets hung like glass film. When there is wind into the box, the sheet will move, the amount of elevation showed indicates air speed. Using a simple formula by including air speed, window length and room volume, ACH can be calculated.
Hospital, clinic, doctor’s practice is a place that is very sensitive to transmission of tuberculosis. These places should be given special attention because there are still many who do not meet the requirements in accordance with the standard air exchange. Most use the air conditioner and covers the windows with glass without installing exhaust fan.
The role of the government here is very important, especially for the Ministry of Health in order to improve effort to socialize cough ethics to the community, educate the community about the spatial structure with good air flow, making policies or regulations regarding health care facilities that meet the requirements for infection prevention and control of tuberculosis (PPI -TB). Making training for health workers to master the PPI-TB program. With these efforts very minimal cost when compared with treatment efforts for people with tuberculosis, on the other hand can also improve productivity for society.