What is Ulcerative Colitis
Bloody stools, mucus, and pus are signs of disturbance in the digestive tract. If it turns out you experience severe diarrhea, high fever, and bleeding during bowel movements, you must be vigilant. Could be you have colitis (ulcerative colitis).
Ulcerative colitis is an acute or chronic inflammation of the colon (large intestine). Because the inflammation that occurs abdominal cramps, fever, and bloody diarrhea. Inflammation that begins in the rectum or sigmoid colon (the lower end of the colon) and then spread to all or part of the large intestine. In part that inflamed swelling will occur. Colitis suffered by anyone and at any age. But usually begin suffered at the age of 15-30 years and can also over 50 years.
Factors, Causes and Symptoms
Based on the cause, colitis can be grouped into two parts. Colitis due to infections and colitis due to non infections. Colitis due to infection, among others, Shigellosis, psedomembran colitis, and colitis due to viruses / bacteria / parasites. While non-infectious colitis, among others, ulcerative colitis, ischemic colitis, microscopic colitis, and nonspecific colitis (simple colitis).
It could not be ascertained what is the main cause of this ulcerative colitis. However, heredity and the response of the immune system is too active in the intestine alleged role in the occurrence of ulcerative colitis. In addition, acute inflammation was also triggered by environmental factors and hipersinsitivitas of food, the body’s immune interactions and bacteria that do not succeed, the state has experienced improved blood vessel, and stress.
Clinical symptoms resembling dysentery amoeba. But in general clinical symptoms caused more severe, and even can cause impairment of consciousness. The symptoms is vary, ranging from no symptoms to cause pain from mild to severe.
Minor complaints, among others, bloating, mild abdominal pain, often dispose of the wind, high fever, and sometimes mild diarrhea mixed with blood and mucus. While the weight of complaints of high fever, diarrhea with mucus and blood, the body feels weak, and severe abdominal pain. The attacks began gradually. Starting with a desire to defecate very, mild lower abdominal cramps and bloody stools and mucus.
If inflammation is limited to the rectum and sigmoid colon, the stool may be normal or hard and dry. If the disease spreads to the intestines, the stool softer and patient defecate as much as 10-20 times per day. At night, any of these symptoms are not reduced.
The most feared is the case of toxic colitis, namely damage to the entire thickness of the intestinal wall. This damage can cause ileus, the bowel wall movement stops, so that bowel contents are not encouraged in the channel. Because of this, the stomach will swell. The worst possibility, the large intestine and eventually lose their muscle tension experienced widening.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Diagnosis can only be enforced after the doctor saw the symptoms and results of stool examination. On blood examination stage, the doctor will be found anemia, increased white blood cell count, and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate of blood.
Diagnosis will be strengthened by sigmoidoscopy (examination of the sigmoid). And this can make the doctor directly observe whether you severe or not of inflammation. In addition to sigmoidoscopy, the stage of the disease can be known from the abdominal X-ray results.
Another way is a barium enema and colonoscopy. But these two approaches can not be done before the commencement of treatment because of the risk of perforation (forming a hole) if it is done at the active stage of disease.
To determine whether the cause of inflammation of the colon is bacterial or parasitic infections, stool specimens obtained during sigmoidoscopy examination is checked again by doctors with a microscope and cultured. Blood samples will be analyzed to determine whether there is parasite infection. Similarly, tissue samples taken from the lining of the rectum.
After knowing the cause, doctors will perform medical acts. Treatment is aimed at controlling inflammation, reducing symptoms, and replace fluids and nutrients lost. At this stage, patients should avoid raw fruits and vegetables to reduce physical injury to the lining of the inflamed colon.
Another way is to diet. Milk-free diet is believed to reduce symptoms. And the addition of iron can cure anemia resulting from loss of blood in the stool.
Anticholinergic drugs such as loperamide or difeniksilat or in small doses can be given to patients suffering from diarrhea are relatively mild. But if being heavier, can be given in larger doses or difenoksilat opium dissolved in alcohol, loperamide or codein. In severe cases, anti-diarrhea drug administration should be closely monitored to avoid toxic megakolon.
If the conditions are mild or ulcerative colitis is still limited to the left side colon (descending colon) and rectum, can be given with corticosteroids or mesalamine enema. When the illness more severe, the patient should be hospitalized and given corticosteroids intravenously (through the veins).
This is called colitis amebik. The disease is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. These diseases are included in the category of communicable diseases. Usually, transmission occurs through fecal contamination of food and beverages. Poor environmental sanitation, the environment is densely populated, and the lack of individual sanitation facilitate transmission. These germs can invade other organs besides the colon, such as liver, brain, and lungs. This disease could become epidemic in the area that the community is less to maintain cleanliness.
The symptoms that appear is mixed. Ranging from mild, such as bloating, mild abdominal pain, mild fever, mild diarrhea with foul-smelling stools mixed with blood and mucus, down to the stage of more serious and severe, such as abdominal cramps, fever, body weakness, diarrhea accompanied by a lot of blood, fever high, nausea and anemia.
Diarrhea can strike up to several days. If you already entered the phase of acute or severe, can be up to 3-14 days. If you already in this condition, the patient should see a doctor for treatment. Generally, the treatment is intended to control inflammation and reduce symptoms. Usually doctors will prescribe antibiotics as appropriate. And type of antibiotic was determined by medical history and nature of feces.
The treatment was carried out also fixes the balance of fluid and electrolyte disturbances. Just to note, actually the large intestine not only produce water in excess, but also electrolytes. Loss of fluid and electrolytes is what causes dehydration. Dehydration must be prevented, if not, it can worsen your condition.
In emergency situations, mild dehydration can be overcome by providing a liquid electrolyte (ORS). If dehydration is severe, after being given ORS solution or a mixture of sugar and salt as first aid, should the patient be brought to the hospital to get intravenous replacement fluid therapy. Will also be corrected for disturbances of electrolyte balance occurs. Do not give medicine for diarrhea, the germs will be accumulated in the stomach and can not be excluded.